Friday, March 27, 2020

Global Warming Via Globalisation Essay Example

Global Warming Via Globalisation Paper This in turn promotes the usage of such chemicals. But the advantage is that goods services which help in preserving our world can also be introduced across the globe. For egg: non-polluting vehicles. This is the same for water pollution. Since all types’ goods and services are marketed globalization promotes the usage of goods that cause global warming and water pollution. Polluting water in turn creates water scarcity. Since the population is growing their needs will increase the production of such items at international level. Globalization will also promote the fuels and machines that cause less pollution. So buyers will be more for such items which will create a competition between industries to produce less polluting goods so that consumers would buy more. Globalization is often referred to when discussing things such as trade, travel or large international companies and people think that it has nothing to do with them. No matter where people live in the world, however, they can be affected by globalization on environment, an individual, local, national and global scale. Globalization and Environment Globalization is altering the global environment. Some perceive the net ecological impact of globalization as positive, as a force of progress and better lives. It fosters economic growth and cooperative institutions, both necessary in the long run to manage the global environment. Others see the net impact as negative, as a force sinking the globe into a bog of ecological decay. We will write a custom essay sample on Global Warming Via Globalisation specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Global Warming Via Globalisation specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Global Warming Via Globalisation specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer It is accelerating the destructive process of too many people consuming too many natural resources without any concern for equality or justice. Globalization involves multiple and complex sets of overlapping processes. Inevitably, there will be manifold and at times cross-cutting effects on the global environment. It is important to highlight that not only does globalization impact the environment, but the environment impacts the pace, direction and quality of globalization. At the very least, this happens because environmental resources provide the fuel for economic globalization, but also because our social and policy responses to global environmental challenges constrain and influence the context in which globalization happens. Global warming and Greenhouse effect After 1 50 Years of Industrialization, Climate Change is Inevitable. Global warming-also called climate change-refers to the worldwide rise in imperatives as the result of â€Å"greenhouse effect†. Greenhouse gases are released by activities such as the burning of fossil fuels, land clearing, and agriculture. 1 . How Do Humans Contribute to the Greenhouse Effect? While the greenhouse effect is an essential environmental prerequisite for life on Earth, there really can be too much of a good thing. The problems begin when human activities distort and accelerate the natural process by creating more greenhouse gases in the atmosphere than are necessary to warm the planet to an ideal temperature. Burning natural gas, coal and oil -including gasoline for automobile engines-raises the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Some farming practices and land-use changes increase the levels of methane and nitrous oxide. Many factories produce long-lasting industrial gases that do not occur naturally, yet contribute significantly to the enhanced greenhouse effect and â€Å"global warming’ that is currently under way. Deforestation also contributes to global warming. Trees use carbon dioxide and give off oxygen in its place, which helps to create the optimal balance of gases in the atmosphere. As more forests are logged for timber or UT down to make way for farming, however, there are fewer trees to perform this critical function. Population growth is another factor In global warming, because as more people use fossil fuels for heat, transportation and manufacturing the level of greenhouse gases continues to increase. As more farming occurs to feed millions of new people, more greenhouse gases enter the atmosphere. The relationship between globalization and the environment is too complex to sum up in a single judgment – whether â€Å"good† or â€Å"bad†. On the other hand, changes in the composition and techniques of economic activity can lower the damage relative to income. A sound environment is essential to realizing the full potential of globalization. Conversely, the absence of a sound environment can significantly undermine the promise of economic prosperity through globalization. Technological solutions will inevitably determine the future of globalization as well as the global environment. But they will do so within the context of global consumption demands. Technology cannot change the demands or help us satisfy all of them but it can, through globalization, help meet these demands in a more lancet-friendly way. Individuals Globalization affects every aspect of an individuals life including, religion, food, transport, language, music and clothing. It affects each individual differently however, depending on a diverse number of factors such as location, education and income. While globalization is said to unite the world, it has often been criticizes for widening the gap between the rich and poor. It also has been said to favor the wealthy and educated, particularly those citizens belonging to the wealthier countries such as the United States. People room developing nations are disadvantaged to an even greater extent than the poor from developed nations. Aside from being exploited as cheap labor, many are also without access to technology. For those who do have access, many are unable to use the internet owing to their inability to read and write, or to communicate in English which has become the dominant language in the new global world. People from poorer nations are said to also be exposed to more pollution. This pollution is suggested to have resulted from globalization which places importance on international travel and trade, as well as industry. Local On a local level, globalization has dramatically changed the nature of business. Many smaller, local companies have been pushed out of business by their competitors. It is Often a result of consumers turning to the cheaper retail prices which they can offer, owing to many having manufactured products using cheap foreign labor. In response, campaigns have been initiated to promote local markets being restored and the return of locally produced goods and services. The food industry is often referred to when making the point of just how much we import, how far it has to come and the impact that this is having on the environment. Increasing the local production of food would mean that less packaging and less transport would have a noticeable benefit to the environment. Local cultures have also been affected by globalization. Traditional customs and rituals are being replaced with the popular culture. Local communities are now likely to have fast food chains such as McDonald’s or restaurants with foreign dishes. National Globalization, which is often dominated by finance, economics and business, has naturally had a significant effect on a national level. While nations have restored from the wealth created by globalization, the circumstances of poor nations may have actually become worse. The problem is that for many poorer nations, the situation will continue to worsen. Their citizens are often less likely to be educated, or have the skills to assist in improving the economy of their country. For those who do have the education and skills, they are often granted visas to move to developed, wealthier nations for the chance of a better standard of living. While this improves their quality of life, their country is being left without the skilled workers that are needed to improve its economy. Global Globalization has resulted in almost every aspect of life existing on an increasingly international scale. A global economy is emerging owing to companies and countries expanding their international trade through improvements in technology. People are traveling to foreign countries more and cultures are being exchanged to form a shared global identity. The fact that humans all share the same global environment means that they are dependent on each other being able to protect it. The effects of globalization on the environment have come under heavy criticism in the past. It IS thought that globalization is a major contributor to global warming, due to its emphasis On international travel and trade, as well as industry. Statistics show that compared to 1950, emissions of carbon dioxide in 2000 had increased fourfold. In response, new policies have been adopted by countries to try to better protect the environment. How globalization causes global warming Around the world, this summer was different; Oil companies are relishing the prospect of getting at oil beneath the Arctic Ocean, as its ice cap melts more rapidly than anyone anticipated a few years ago. The inability to solve global warming, the most serious environmental problem facing the world, is emblematic of the failures of globalization. But it is also an opportunity to use the forces of globalization for the good of the planet’s health. We have become more interdependent, and greater interdependence increases the need for acting together. But we do not have the institutional frameworks for doing this effectively and democratically. There has been much discussion of how we can make our global economy work more smoothly, but if we do not learn how to share our planet better. What happens if you release carbon dioxide and certain other gases into the atmosphere in larger amounts? The gases act like a greenhouse, capturing solar energy in the atmosphere, and gradually the Earth warms up. Ocean currents are altered, ocean levels rise, rainfall patterns change, and storms become more intense. We need an enforcement mechanism to prevent the countries that refuses to cut back emissions from inflicting harm on the rest of the world. Globalization has its costs, but it also has its benefits, and among those is an international trade framework that can be used to enforce emission reductions. Not paying the full costs Of production, not paying the cost Of damage to the environment, is itself a subsidy, just as not paying the full costs of workers would be. In most developed countries today, firms are paying the cost of pollution to the global environment, in the form of taxes imposed on coal, oil and gas. The nations go along unless developing countries reduce their emissions, and the developing countries see no reason they should not be allowed to pollute as much per capita. There is a way out, and that is through a common (global) environmental tax on emissions. There is a social cost to emissions, and the common environmental tax would simply make everyone pay the social cost. This is in accord with the most basic of economic principles, that individuals and firms should pay their full costs. Now that pollution rights are treatable, we can even put a market value on them, and it is enormous. Each country claims special circumstances that warrant a larger allocation of emission rights. But under the common tax approach, these debates are sidestepped. All that is asked is that everyone pay the social cost of their emissions. The challenges the world confronts in popping with global warming parallel those in the other arenas of globalization: an unfair global trade regime that impedes development, an unstable global financial system that results in crisis after crisis, with poor countries repeatedly finding themselves with debt burdens beyond their ability to pay, and a global intellectual property regime which denies access to affordable lifesaving drugs, even as the AIDS epidemic ravishes so much of the developing world. Money should flow from the rich to the poor countries, but in recent years, it has been going in the opposite direction. Because the rich re better able to bear the risk of exchange and interest rate fluctuations, the rich should bear the brunt of this volatility, but instead it is borne by the poor. Resource rich countries have done more poorly than those who are far worse off. Conclusion It is a conceptual study about our environment. The globe is getting much warmer nowadays. There are so many causes for this global warming. Globalization is one of the causes of this. By this analysis, I conclude that; Global warming is the rise in the average temperature of earth’s atmosphere and oceans. Globalization is the process of extending social elation’s across world space. Such extension results in simultaneous development in technology and trade. Some of them cause harm to the atmosphere and invites global warming. The increase in the earth’s average surface temperature due to the effect of green house gases such as carbon dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels etc leads to global warming. As a part of globalization the invention of new technologies has created much smoke and dust which does harm to the nature. The two terms globalization and global warming are closely related. What globalization does to the atmosphere is global warming even though it brings in development. Globalization can be changed; indeed, it is clear that it will be changed. The question is: Will change be forced upon us, a result of a crisis, or will we take control of the process. The former risks a backlash against globalization or a hazard reshaping, in a way that only sets the stage for even more problems in the future. The latter holds out the possibility of remaking globalization so that it at last lives up to its potential of improving the living standards of everyone in the world, and as an added benefit helping to save the atmosphere that makes life on Earth possible.

Friday, March 6, 2020

How the Plot Pyramid Keeps Readers Turning Pages

How the Plot Pyramid Keeps Readers Turning Pages A plot diagram, plot skeleton, plot structure, or plot pyramid- these are common names for a universal setup of stories that spans time periods, genres, and literary movements. In the simplest of terms, its the way humans have always told stories. When you take away the individual character traits and plot points of a certain story and narrow it down to its conflict and basic structure, youll find that most stories are the same.The reason for this is because the basic plot diagram works. It appeals to our humanity as readers and touches on experiences weve all shared, regardless of our socioeconomic status or background. Its how we analyze our own life story (subconsciously) and how we piece together connections between experiences.How it worksYou begin the story with a character. This part is known as the exposition or introduction, and in it, you learn important information that sets up the action of the story.Next, your character experiences some type of challenge or struggle. Thi s is known as the rising action. This can be in the form of other people, nature or a conflict within himself/herself. The rising action can look like a heart monitor (several peaks and valleys as the character faces increasingly larger obstacles and overcomes them) or like one large peak, with the climax at the top.The climax is the point at which the character faces his greatest challenge and overcomes it. In action stories, this could be the final battle between the protagonist and antagonist. In romance, this could be the moment when all seems lost between the lovers but they suddenly find themselves in each others arms to profess their undying love.Finally, there is the resolution or the dà ©nouement. This is the moment when life returns to normal and the reader experiences resolution along with your characters. Its a cathartic process and the reason this plot diagram works every time, in every story.Here is a plot diagram from DiagramsCharts.comThe basic building blocksSo, kn owing that there is a basic setup common to almost every story that has ever been told or written by humanity, what about the other building blocks? Are there particular traits that are important in making a story appeal to audiences?Researchers at Georgetown Universitys Center for Social Impact Communication sought to identify the five key aspects of compelling stories, and heres what they found every story should have:An effective characterThere needs to be at least one compelling character to which readers can relate. It needs to be a character that is realistic, authentic and someone readers can root for. It also should be someone who has a need that is universal (a need everyone can relate to), whether that is seeking for a real connection with someone or trying to survive.TrajectoryThe trajectory is another way to describe the rising action, climax and falling action of the plot pyramid. There needs to be an experience or journey that brings about transformation in the charact er. Think of it as a force that pulls the story forward and makes the reader want to turn the page.AuthenticityAccording to the article, If the trajectory of a story is its skeleton, then authenticity is the meat that adds critical substance to those bones. Through an authentic characters voice and/or thoughts, authors are able to create someone who is compelling- someone readers would want to get to know if they encountered someone similar in real life.Action-oriented emotionsWhen you get angry- really angry- what actions do you show? Do you slam doors? Raise your voice? Does your voice shake?These kinds of actions are always more compelling to read about than passive ones, which is why when someone is arguing with another person in public, people will stop to listen. Its human nature to be drawn to such raw displays of emotion. The same is true of readers. Give your characters compelling, raw situations that elicit action-oriented emotions.A hookA compelling story needs to hook re aders as quickly as possible and then keep them hooked. Some authors do this with a fast-paced storyline told with short chapters that end with a suspenseful moment, allowing a sense of urgency to keep readers wanting to turn the page. Other authors do this by building profound or interesting characters, dropping hints about some mysterious past or present as the story is told. Whichever method you use, keeping the reader hooked is what makes a good book impossible to put down.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Computer IT User Guide Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Computer IT User Guide - Research Paper Example While the library itself would provide solid access to materials needed for continued research, the Internet would provide the opportunity to gain access to such research, without leaving home. All of the sources used for this guide, have been found to be credible and reliable. In terms of the audience for this guide, it would be meant for both the expert computer related user, along with the average individual that may be seeking to gain an entrance into the subject matter that would allow them to start the learning process. While it would have overall consideration to the field of computers, it would be more inclined toward those individuals seeking to go into the IT field. As for the motivation behind the use of this guide, it would be figured that, at least for the most part, the goal would be to either firm up pre-existing knowledge, or to gain a basic level of knowledge that can be further built upon. Overall, an individual(s) may wish to utilize the guide for the purpose of continuing what they may have learned in class, or the desire to come into the study of the field as individuals without any pre-conceived notions. The format of this guide would be especially designed for the easy comprehension of both the long time user, along with someone who would be brand new. The source information provided within the guide would be far-encompassing, as it would come to the material gathered from the sources utilized. With this particular guide, it may find more individuals who would be found to gravitate towards it, in that the sources utilized, can be found readily through the use of the Internet. Even if the users of the guide were less than experienced with the Internet, or those who would spend a great deal of time using the medium, each would find benefits through using this guide. Organization of Information As for organization, the manner at which the information is organized in this guide is to show the general nature of material that is available on the subject, through the process of using the Internet. For those interested in the field of computers, they are generally aware of the broad nature of material within a given subject discipline that can be found through the use of such search engines as Yahoo.com & Google. In terms of personal opinion, the construction of the user guide would be in such a manner that would fit the research approach for furthering personal awareness in the chosen discipline being studied. The abstracts have been constructed in a manner that allow for the easy comprehension of the material being observed and the ability to readily find the material and utilize it. The conscious decision to effectively format the guide, in turn, allows for the user(s), to be able to effectively grasp and utilize the material that they are reading. Assumptions In general, this user guide would have been created, with the thought that there would be individuals that would either have knowledge to begin with on the subject, or would wish to become familiar for whatever reason, with the diverse nature of computers and computer related professions. Despite the fact that having firsthand knowledge on the subject may place an individual(s) at a better position going in, there still would remain the sense that, even without such knowledge, an

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

The Strategic Use of Information and Communication Technology Dissertation

The Strategic Use of Information and Communication Technology - Dissertation Example The findings of the paper reveals that majority of the SME enterprises have considered ICT as the catalyst of their business Apart from the gains that the SMEs are presently accruing from the use of the ICT in their operations the ICT can also be used to reap further gains by implementing the ICT in a more integrated and strategic manner (Maguire and Koh, 2007, 16). Franklin is of the opinion that the ICT can be used by the SMEs to improve their functioning. This would help in making the information about micro- credit facilities and production technology more accessible. Apart from this it facilitates the skills building of the organization by the method of distance learning (Franklin, 2006, 15). The three assets of the Information technology (IT) that is the human asset, the technology assets and the relationships assets helps in the planning, delivery and operation procedures in an organization (Ross, 1995, 16). The four pillars of IT in an organization are the â€Å"IT and the b usiness alignment†; â€Å"IT strategic planning†, â€Å"security and privacy† and â€Å"attracting, developing and retaining IT professionals†. ... Advertising and suggestions projected concerning the products of a firm is also a crucial step (Liebowitz and Khosrowpour, 1997, 221). Proper alignment of business activities is very much required in an organization. For instance, in case of Wal-Mart, information technology has been used in order to alter the model of business. The firm has allowed the suppliers to find place on the shelf of the company which would be paid for what they get (Light, 2005, 113). The study conducted by King and Teao reveals that the organizations which undertakes a strategic approach in their functioning emphasizes more on the use of the IT in their works than the other firms. The internal factors affecting the functioning of the organization lays down the need of strategic systems in their works. The strategic systems emphasizes on the need of IT in their works. This enables the smooth and efficient functioning of the organization (King and Teao, 1994, 10). The knowledge management, which is facilitate d by the use of ICT in the organization’s operation, enables the enterprise in utilizing its tangible and non-tangible knowledge resources can be used in a SME by locating and capturing the innovative ideas and strategies, by sharing the information about the procedures, which are cost effective (Menkhoff, Wah and Loh, 2004, 19-21; Melville, Kraemer, and Gurbaxani, 2004, 284). Pillania in his work talks about the catalytic role that the aligned knowledge management strategy plays in firm’s growth. But he also observes certain limitations of the KM (knowledge management) in boosting the growth of SMEs. Hence it is advisable for the firms to manage its knowledge base in way so that the challenges can be overcome

Monday, January 27, 2020

Study On The Student Athlete English Language Essay

Study On The Student Athlete English Language Essay Being a student athlete is one of the hardest things there is to do. You find yourself having to make to make two full time commitments, one to your professors who expects you to fully commit yourself to the classroom and one to your coach who expects you to fully commit yourself to your sport. There is no remorse in the life of a student athlete, neither professor nor coach cares if youre too tired trying to balance the two in your life. If you spent all night studying for a class your coach is not going to let you sleep in and if you spent all day working on your sport your professor wont give you any slack. Aside from being a tough life to live there are many benefits to being a college students athlete as well. Sports teach lifelong skills that have extreme value and cannot be learned outside of sports. Also being a student athlete forces you to be so busy that you dont have time to get in trouble like other college students may. Being a student athlete means much more than what its shown to be, you learn critical life lessons through your sport, you learn to deal with stress on a different level and you become bonded to your team like a family. A college team is always changing; especially at the community college level you only see a big part of the team for only a year before they move on to a four year. At the beginning of the season you look to most of these players as just a group of guys of even your competition for your position. But as you progress through the off season your look upon these men changes, instead of your competition you see a team all striving for the same goal. Eventually this team isnt just as team but becomes a family. When your teammate is out of the field and youre not you clinch your teeth for them to make the play instead of fail which could give you a chance to play. At practice you push youre hardest to force the only players to do the same. When a whole team achieves this it creates something special, a team destine for greatness. Being a student athlete can bring a lot of stress causing them to lose concentration in both school and their sport. Stress can be a major problem that can eventually cause a student to not only quit in their sport, but also drop out of school all together. Being a student athlete causes more stress than typically any other reasoning for a college student to be stressed. For example when an athlete has a game coming up and a big project due the same night it will cause a lot stress. The one way that a student athlete can avoid having this type of stress is finishing their school work ahead of time, so they can relax after the game. This strain can also cause an athlete to stop doing a sport completely for a little while and entirely focus on their school. Theres nothing wrong with doing that, but stopping a sport for any time period will interrupt the growth of an athletes skill in their sport. Having good time management could be a determining factor of winning a State Championship or not for the team. Its granted that no athlete wants to be the one that ruins winning a State Championship just because they dont plan in advance. If a student athlete is in a sport that is individual such as tennis or golf this can cause even more stress due to the amount of pressure the sport causes alone. The goal to being a good student athlete is to have time management and not be a procrastinator. An athlete must also have good valued characteristics because in most case they are looked upon as role models. When a student goes to college they will develop into the adult they want to be in the future. Being in a sport while in college can give that student some of the respectable characteristics that they will need in the future. Bob Richards once said One of the great lessons Ive learned in athletics is that youve got to discipline your life. No matter how good you may be, youve got to be willing to cut out of your life those things that keep you from going to the top. Being an athlete means you must know what will help you move forward and what will take you back and remove what will take you back. Being an athlete also gives you leadership qualities that cant be learned elsewhere because you are placed into situations where quick decisions must be made. Athletes also have good respect towards others otherwise they would get punished in their sports for having disrespect. Being an athlete or not everybody probably agrees that having to run for being disrespectful is unquestionably not worth it. Student athletes are usually respected by others because they understand how the athletes have to work hard and are always strong-minded to succeed. Most people believe the idea that college is the time for messing around and discovering yourself, especially in the life of student athletes. The college athlete has been given this reputation of jocks only playing and partying. This is very untrue, the student athlete must strive for excellence of the field and still manage to do all their homework and school work. Regardless of how tough all the school work is, I believe everyone deserves to have a college experience outside the classroom. Some believe that student Athletes lead a different college experience than a normal student. As a college student athlete myself, I have come to learn that I am going to need to work twice as hard to be able to receive good grades while earning my degree along with balancing my time consuming baseball career. While I am trying to balance all of these things I am also going to try to be adjusting to the living circumstances and other situations the college life decided to throw at me. All college students tolerate and encounter some of the same situations. The college life is a huge change from life in high school. In college students usually move away from the comfort of their homes and no longer live under the protection of their parents. Most student athletes like myself have always been juggling their school work and sports as long as they can remember. Because Ive always had a sport to go along with school Ive never had the chance to be as full time student. In high school I was always playing a sport or dedicating my time to become better in one. It gives a student an unfair advantage over student athletes because they can spend this time becoming a better student. Although, there are many issues college students and college student athletes share, there are also a lot of problems they do not. Life can be stressful at times for every college student, but your normal college students have additional time to deal with whatever problems that occur. From witness ing college students around me, I have come to the assumption that all college students will sleep as much as they can. In most cases this would mean sleeping until you have to attend class, which most likely starts around nine for most students. Your standard course load for a typical college student is around fifteen units, which averages around ten to twelve hours a week. Once a college student attends all of his or her classes for the day they are usually free to do whatever they desire. With this extra free time the student has, it is mostly devoted to their social life. Since there normally is a good amount of extra time on the college students life they can usually have a pretty decent social life outside of school. The life of a college student athlete is structured closely to a normal students life but has much more added on top. Although, your typical class normally starts around nine or eight, most athletes are required to have to be up much earlier for study hall and/or practice depending on the sport. Not being able to sleep in very much in the mornings, I celebrate when I have a class at ten and I can go home after study hall or lifting and sleep for that extra hour. After school is over for the day, a college student athlete is rarely free to do what they wish; the majority of the time, there is either practice or games to be attended too. After a long day of class and practice you get to finally go home and do homework and study. With all of their time dedicated to the sport they play, the majority of college student athletes dont have much of a social life separate from their teammates. While most of an athletes close friends are their teammates, it feels more as if a family than just simply friends. Throughout the chaotic schedules of athletes, they can still find some spare time to socialize with other friends. The difference is that every student athlete has a target on their back and constantly has eyes watching them so they must be very cautious of what they do outside of school. Being a student athlete is hard but college can still be fun. Nothing helps clear a writers block more than going outside and throwing a baseball to clear my head. It is still unsure if student athletes or regular college students party and get in trouble more. But what I am sure of is that a student athlete will run a whole lot quick when the police come because of the fear of having to face the consequences from their coaches. The truth of the matter is college is no breeze for anyone student; college as a whole is a lot of hard work and commitment. The majority of student athletes have respect, are good leaders, and are very passionate about their school work and their sport. I personally believe the life of a student athlete can be more difficult in some parts than it is for college students but the life lessons you learn from being an athlete can never be learned anywhere else. Writers Narrative Although my essay strides away from the main topic of the assignment I felt that writing this essay would help me develop as a student. I did extensive research of the benefits and withdraws of being a student athlete and wanted to argue the point that people make that student athletes care less about their school work. Work Cited 1. Academic and Athletic Reform. American Decades. Ed. Judith S. Baughman, Victor Bondi, Richard Layman, Tandy McConnell, and Vincent Tompkins.  Vol. 9: 1980-1989.   Detroit: Gale, 2001.  Ã‚  Word Count: 550. 2 College Athletics. BRADLEY JAMES BATES, JOHN R. THELIN, JASON R. EDWARDS, ROBERT E. STAMMER, Jr., RACHEL M. MADSEN, THOMAS PASKUS,, et al. Encyclopedia of Education. Ed. James W. Guthrie.  Vol. 1.  2nd  ed.   New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2003.  p344-371.  Word Count: 15416. 3. College and High School Sports. Sports in America: Recreation, Business, Education and Controversy. Robert Jacobson. 2006  ed.   Detroit: Information Plus, 2006.  p69-94.  Word Count: 8791.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Roller Coasters

Roller Coasters The main energy transfers that happens as a â€Å"car† travels along the track from the start of the ride to the end. 1. The main energy transfers are between gravitational potential energy (GPE) and kinetic energy (KE), and the eventual decrease of mechanical energy as it transforms into thermal energy. Roller coasters often start as a chain and motor exercises a force on the car to lift it up to the top of a very tall hill.At this height, GPE is at its highest, as we can see through the formula: GPE = mass x gravitational field strength x height (for all physics in relation to Earth, take g to be 10 m/s2 or 10 N/kg) We can see through this formula that as the height increases, so does the GPE, which will then be converted into KE, or kinetic energy. This is the energy that takes place as the â€Å"car† is falling down the hill. This is calculated through the formula: KE = 0. 5 x mass x speed This means that the kinetic energy increases as the speed inc reases, and vice versa. Therefore, this means the higher the kinetic energy, the faster the â€Å"car†.We can actually be extremely specific in terms of this relationship. We know that as the mass doubles, the KE doubles, but as the speed doubles, the KE quadruples. This becomes important when analysing this formula: KE = GPE/0. 5mv2 = mgh 2. A roller coaster ride is a thrilling experience which involves a wealth of physics. Part of the physics of a roller coaster is the physics of work and energy. The ride often begins as a chain and motor (or other mechanical device) exerts a force on the train of cars to lift the train to the top of a vary tall hill.Once the cars are lifted to the top of the hill, gravity takes over and the remainder of the ride is an experience in energy transformation. At the top of the hill, the cars possess a large quantity of potential energy. Potential energy – the energy of vertical position – is dependent upon the mass of the object a nd the height of the object. The car's large quantity of potential energy is due to the fact that they are elevated to a large height above the ground. As the cars descend the first drop they lose much of this potential energy in accord with their loss of height.The cars subsequently gain kinetic energy. Kinetic energy – the energy of motion – is dependent upon the mass of the object and the speed of the object. The train of coaster cars speeds up as they lose height. Thus, their original potential energy (due to their large height) is transformed into kinetic energy (revealed by their high speeds). As the ride continues, the train of cars are continuously losing and gaining height. Each gain in height corresponds to the loss of speed as kinetic energy (due to speed) is transformed into potential energy (due to height).Each loss in height corresponds to a gain of speed as potential energy (due to height) is transformed into kinetic energy (due to speed). Additional not es: GPE = m x g x h       KE = m x v? The main energy transfers that happen as a car travels along the track from the start of the ride to the end: 3. The roller coaster car gains gravitational potential energy (GPE) as it travels to the top. Once over the top, the car gains speed as GPE is transferred to kinetic energy (KE). As it travels to the top of another loop, KE is transferred to GPE.Not all the energy is transferred to or from GPE – some is transferred to the surroundings as heat and sound. All moving objects have kinetic energy, KE. The kinetic energy an object has depends on the mass and speed. If the mass doubles, the KE doubles and if the speed doubles, the KE quadruples. Normally energy is lost through sound and heat (friction, air resistance). 1. http://www. antiessays. com/free-essays/339200. html 2. http://www. physicsclassroom. com/mmedia/energy/ce. cfm 3. http://www. studymode. com/essays/Physics-Roller-Coasters-1535452. htmlHow the HEIGHTS of the hills are designed to allow an empty â€Å"car† to reach the end of the ride. 1. The purpose of the coaster's initial ascent is to build up a sort of reservoir of potential energy. The concept of potential energy, often referred to as energy of position, is very simple: As the coaster gets higher in the air, gravity can pull it down a greater distance. You experience this phenomenon all the time — think about driving your car, riding your bike or pulling your sled to the top of a big hill. The potential energy you build going up the hill can be released as kinetic energy — the energy of motion that takes you down the hill.Once you start cruising down that first hill, gravity takes over and all the built-up potential e ­nergy changes to kinetic energy. Gravity applies a constant downward force on the cars. 2. The hills are designed so that it is low enough that the momentum of the car from the previous drop carries it up and over the hill. This is why the hills are usually lower towards the end of the ride, because the car has lost momentum due to friction and air resistance. Mainly the consecutive hill must be lower as it will not have enough energy because some of it is lost and sound and heat.Therefore, if the car was to reach the end of the ride, the height of the hills must be lower each consecutive time. 1. http://science. howstuffworks. com/engineering/structural/roller-coaster3. htm 2. http://www. studymode. com/essays/Physics-Roller-Coasters-1535452. html How the ENERGY TRANSFERS determines the heights of the hills. The roller coaster train, having travelled down the first drop, now has a load of Kinetic Energy. There are a number of situations that could then take place. Situation 1: Flat Straight Track What a boring roller coaster this would make, but it illustrates a point.If the track after the first drop was completely flat and straight†¦ then the Kinetic Energy would, theoretically, allow the train to continue moving foreve r, as energy does not disapear. In the real world, however, air resistance and friction between the wheels and the track cause the kinetic energy to be converted away, and thus eventually the train will stop. Situation 2: A Hill of Equal Height to the First Drop Another dull coaster, but this one would make the news as it is destined to get stuck. As the train speeds down the first drop, bottoms out and rises up the second hill, the train would roll back.Even though, theoretically, the train has the kinetic energy to get up the same size hill as the first drop, much of this will be lost due to friction and air resistance. As a result, the train would only make it about 3/4 of the way up the second hill before it rolls back down. Situation 3: A Hill of Less Height than the First Drop Now the train will have enough energy to get over the second hill, provided the hill is low enough to take into account the train style and weight, and continue onwards. http://www. coasterforce. com/coa sters/technical-info/physics-of-a-coaster

Friday, January 10, 2020

Nature of Human Resource Management: Hiring and Recruiting

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY INTRODUCTION In the present time, Organization’s most important assets are its people i. e. Employees. These employees are the foundation on which the organization stands strong; without the human power to perform certain tasks, to produce, to operate, to analyze, etc no organization can live. Although the modern technologies have made a lot things much easier but nothing can replace the significance of the Human Resources. Therefore, Hiring is a very challenging, time consuming and costly function of the company.But what’s even harder – especially in today’s chaotic economic situation is, â€Å"Making the right Hire†. Recruiting and Selection is all about â€Å"hiring the right person for the right job at the right time. † Even a single wrong hire can affect the operations of the business and can cost the firm a fortune. In order to avoid making a bad hire, HR managers must carefully conduct and analyze the Human Resource P lanning (HRP) process. HRP is a process used by the organizations to ensure that it has right amount and kind of people to fulfill its particular goals in future.This is done by forecasting the Labor Demand for future and matching it with the forecasted Labor Supply of the firm. Organizations that do not conduct HRP or don not perform HRP properly may not be able to meet their future labor shortage or may have to resort to layoffs due to labor surplus. Even though hiring the right people with right skills is very protracted and difficult process but Human capital is a substantial investment and even a single mistake can put financial burden on the firm. The pace at which a business moves from survival mode to growth paths is largely dependent on the successful hiring of the correct employees.The prosperity of the business not only depends on hiring good people but hiring extremely talented people with the right skills for any particular job. Following are some useful tips for hiring right people for the right job: * Develop a detailed Job Description; identify the key responsibilities, functions and expectations for the position under question. * Design a careful Job Specification; specify the skills, requirements, experience and knowledge required for the position under question. * Use internal or external labor market to find adequate number of potential candidates * Conduct the Screening process wisely and horoughly in order to find valuable information regarding competitive salaries, intelligence and the working standards. * Try to use structured interview process to select the best possible candidates * Check references provided by the candidates, verify their degrees and other information provided by them and find out about their past working behaviors by contacting their ex boss or subordinates * After hiring, make the new hire welcomed and make him/her understand the culture of the organization through Orientation. Opening CasePAKISTAN CIVIL AVIATION A UTHORITY Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority is a Public sector autonomous body working under the Federal Government of Pakistan through the Ministry of Defence. It was established on 7th December, 1982 as an autonomous body. Prior to its creation, a Civil Aviation Department in the Ministry of Defence used to manage the civil aviation related activities. The day of 7th December has significance, as it coincides with the date of creation of International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in 1944 as a result of the famous Chicago Convention.Incidentally, the United Nations have declared 7th December as the International Civil Aviation day and celebrated as such every year all over the World. All kinds of Civil Aviation related activities are performed by CAA including the regulatory, air traffic services, airport management, infrastructure and commercial development at the airports, etc. Recently, Civil Aviation Authority underwent Restructuring and Change Management process to meet t he present and future challenges.This organizational transformation process identified Structure, Culture, Skills, and Rewards as four tracks on which simultaneous emphasis is being laid. The Vision, Mission, and Core Values have been identified. Wide-angle buy-in process by CAA senior management with staff and lower levels for bridging communication gaps between different hierarchical levels of the organization has been taken. As a result of the Restructuring process, the fundamental organization structure has been balanced to focus on three core areas namely Regulatory, Air Navigations Services, and Airport Services.These Core / Line functions are fully supported by the various corporate functions of the organization. The restructuring process has helped Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority to fully focus on:- * Strengthening its safety and security oversight role as per International Civil Aviation Organization requirements and standards. * To facilitate growth of the infrastructure development (Airports and Airport Cities) on a fast-track basis. Private sector participation in the process is also being encouraged. Enhanced Regulatory and air space management capabilities. Moreover, emphasis is being laid on commercialization of its assets and land with improved customer / passenger service standards, benchmarked with top performing international airports * Development of a New Aviation Policy for the country in consultation with the Ministry of Defence, Planning Commission, World Bank, Airlines, and Aviation Experts (Expected to be considered by the Cabinet for approval shortly). Investing in Human resource development through structured approach with particular focus on quality of people and enhancing their professional capability. Quality work on new initiatives is in progress such as introduction of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Health, Security, Safety, and Environment (HSSE), Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), Ethics Management Program, Custome r feedback mechanism at the airports, Employees Performance Management system, benchmarking, outsourcing of non-core and wasteful activities, etc.Recently, we have embarked upon a challenging phased program to acquire international standards of Integrated Management System (IMS) in CAA during which the international standards of ISO 9001:2000 (Quality Management System), ISO 14001:2004 (Environmental Management System), and OHSAS 18001:2007 (Occupational Health and Safety Management System) shall be acquired. VISION STATEMENT â€Å"Be world-class service provider in the aviation industry† MISSION STATEMENT â€Å"Provide safe, secure and efficient best-in-class aviation services to the stakeholders† CORE VALUES * Commitment * Professional Excellence * Customer Focus Safety and Security * Integrity ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE PCAA MANAGEMENT BOARD Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority is administered by the Board which performs tasks like policy formulation, execution, monitori ng and evaluation. The board is being assisted in different administrative and financial issues by the number of sub committees namely PCCA Executive Committee, PCAA Audit Committee and HR Committee. PCAA BOARD PCAA EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE PCAA AUDIT COMMITTEE HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT OF PCAA The HR department of PCAA is still under the developing process as it was formed only three years ago.Prior to the formation of the HR department there was an ‘Administrative Department’ which use to manage all the activities; finance, accounts, hiring and selection, employee record keeping, audit, etc. Even though the HR department is not completely established, PCAA HR is making pretty good efforts for fostering a prosperous corporate culture and developing organizational capabilities by designing an effective and efficient workforce who remains devoted towards the company. The head of the HR department is the Chief HR who is in Pay Group of 11. He is appointed by DG CAA (Director G eneral).Directorate of human resource delivers high quality of management services from manpower. HR supports the line function/directorates to achieve strategic goals of PCAA. HR directorates have five branches which perform different functions. Each Branch has different head called General Manager (GM) which then reports to chief HR for approval. Following are the branches of the HR Department of PCAA: * HR Employee Relation and Record Management (EM & RM) * HR Recruiting and Selecting (R & S) * HR Career Planning and Performance Measurement (CP & PM) * HR Pension * HR Training and Development (T&D)This report only discusses the HR Recruiting and Selection branch. The HR policies and strategies are formulated and designed in a way to develop a unified, stable and fair working environment for every single employee so that they perform in the best way they can. Moreover, every employee is provided with opportunities to learn and grow. HR ORGANIZATIONAL CHART RECRUITING AND SELECTION AT PCAA The Recruiting and Selection branch is responsible for attracting the potential candidates for any present or future vacant positions; it plans and provides employees with the right skills for the right job.Similarly, the branch also deals with the employee layoffs in case an employee is not performing up to the mark or is indulged in wrong working practices and sometimes the layoffs result due to labor surplus. This branch first seeks approval for any new hire for a post or layoffs from Director General. Before starting the Hiring and Selection process, the HR first conducts Human Resource Planning to find out about its labor demand and analysis. But the HRP process is performed in depth. After the discovering the human resource requirements through HRP the Recruiting and Selection process is started.PCAA Recruiting and Selection Process Human Resource Planning The present working environment has become extremely competitive for every business. People are now open to a gre at deal of opportunities and they are also well informed about the market place; candidates know the standard working practices and salary being paid by the various employers in an industry. Therefore, employees have become less loyal to the companies in general; if they are not satisfied or happy with their employer or subordinates then they don’t hesitate to switch to some other company.Keeping this trend in mind, PCAA HR performs a simple demand and supply analysis for its labor force. Demand Forecasting Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority uses a very simple method for forecasting the labor demand i. e. RATIO ANALYSIS. The method simply compares the ratio of the employees to CAA units with the expected number of employees for each job. Below is a sample table which demonstrates how the demand forecasting is done in PCAA. Column A shows the current number of employees holding the existing key positions in the firm. Column B calculates the present ratio of employees to PCCA un its.Column C calculates the expected number of employees for each job position in 2012 by multiplying the current ratio of employees to PCAA units by 32 (additional number of firms to be added). This is a Quantitative technique. Supply Forecasting Once the demand analysis is done the next step is to do labor supply forecasting. The labor requirements are fulfill either through Judgmental techniques. PCAA uses Executive Reviews; Top Management makes judgments about who should be promoted, reassigned or fired, and Vacancy analysis; judgments are made about likely employee movementsKey Positions| DEMAND FORECAST ANumber of Employees2010| BRatio ofEmployees/CAA Units(Col A/25)| Projected 2012 laborDemand for 32 Firms(Col B x 32)| Secretary Ministerof Defense| 25| 1. 00| 32| Vice Chief of Air Staff| 9| 0. 36| 12| Secretary Planning and Development division| 23| 0. 92| 29| Managing Director PIAC| 20| 0. 80| 26| Director General CAA| 14| 0. 56| 18| Deputy Director General| 22| 0. 88| 28| C hief HR| 25| 1. 00| 32| Chief Financial Officer| 20| 0. 80| 26| General Manager| 45| 1. 80| 58| Director Technical| 27| 1. 08| 35| TOTAL| 230| | 296| RecruitingRecruiting is the process of generating a pool of qualified candidates for a particular job. The firm must announce the job’s availability to the market (inside or outside the organization) and attract qualified candidates to apply. First of all the Recruiting and Selecting branch obtains the detail information about the vacant positions from the respective departments (such as finance, Operations, etc). This is explained in Job Description and Job Specification. However, if the vacancy exists for any HR position then HR develops the job description and job specification.Once all the relevant information is gathered then the job vacancies are announced to the general public through posting the news on their website and newspapers. The internal employees are also informed about the job vacancies through announcements, o fficial emails or office notice board. This is a newspaper ad: PCAA HR department receives job applications within 30 days of the publication of the advertisements (as per the mentioned date in the ads). All the job applications are carefully analyzed and scrutinized and then a certain amount of candidates are short-listed who are eligible for giving the written test.The HR (R&S) then forwards the list of selected candidates to National Testing Service (NTS). Written Test For ensuring transparency and upholding the motto of Merit, PCAA has outsourced its written test examination to a third party National Testing Service (NTS). This decision was made during the Executive Committee Meeting held on 27th July, 2007 as proprietary to conduct all type of written test on behalf of HR (R&S) branch. NTS carries out the written test once it receives the names of the short-listed candidates form HR (R&S).NATIONAL TESTING SERVICE (NTS) NTS is an organization who provides services for conducting academic performance evaluation tests which was formed in July 2002. Following are the test standards that NTS follows for all of its tests. * Developmental procedures * Suitability for use * Customer service * Fairness * Uses and protection of information * Validity * Assessment development * Reliability * Cut scores, scaling, and equating * Assessment administration * Reporting assessment results * Assessment use * Test Takers' rights and responsibilitiesAfter the test is conducted NTS compiles the results and announces them on their websites as well as forward them to HR (R;S) of PCAA. Then HR (R;S) branch is responsible for the development of merit list and issuance of interview call letter to top five candidates as per quota share given below: MERIT QUOTA| PERCENTAGES| PUNJAB| 50%| SINDH| 19%| SINDH (rural)| 11. 4%| SINDH (urban)| 7. 6%| NWFP| 11. 5%| BALOCHISTAN| 6%| AZAD KASHMIR| 2%| WOMEN | 10%| NON-MUSLIMS| 5%| DISABLE| 2%| Interview The candidates who made to the merit li st are called for the final phase of the Recruiting and Selection process i. . Interview. The interview can be conducted at five centers namely Karachi, Islamabad, Lahore, Quetta and Peshawar. The Administration instructs the Airport Managers for making arrangements for the candidates. After interview, HR (R;S) branch compiles the result domicile vise by taking the weight-age of 60% of Written Test and 40% of Interview. INTERVIEW SELECTION BOARD Employee Verification Organizations should not hire people before verifying their documentations and past work behavior; even if they performed excellent in the written test or interview.HR (R;S), in order to predict the future performance of a prospective employee, looks at the Past Employment Record of their prospective candidates. Most of the companies do not provide any kind of job-related information about their ex employees due to fear of insult. But checking employee’s references is a best way for PCAA to avoid negligent hire. Another method used by HR (R;S) branch to do employee verification is to do Background Checks. This includes criminal background checks, verification of degrees, credit history, etc.Background checks help PCAA to avoid any lawsuit resulting due to a negligent hiring. Selection When the prospective employees pass the verification step they are hired. An appointment letter is issued in the name of the employee by the PCAA HR (R;S) branch. The new hires are given a date and time for the Orientation. Training Once the Orientation is conducted the new hires of non-technical posts (e. g. Financial Officer, Accountant, etc) is required to join PCAA from the very next day. But the new hires of technical posts (e. g.Engineers) are send to Civil Aviation Training Institute (CATI) Hyderabad for training. The duration of the training varies from four to six weeks depending upon the nature of the job. Evaluation of the Recruiting and Selection Process PCAA HR(R;S) branch doesn’t use any p roper method of evaluating their Recruiting and Selection process. They simply see the performance of the new hires and see if their decision of hiring a particular employee was correct or not. Hiring and Keeping the Right People Case Study By: Rich Kramarik We have a couple of stories to share with you this month.The first is an accounting firm. This firm has 8 employees and revenues of three million dollars. This firm had been experiencing a problem with turn-over. The CEO was using good interview techniques and involved other members of the firm in the interview process. In a couple of cases clients were used to interview the candidates. This firm was using every bit of good judgment and process to screen candidates. But, yet they experience a high level of turnover. The reasons were all over the map. In one case the new hire just was not as productive as expected.In another case the new hire just didn’t get along with clients. And, in yet another case the new hire was ver y argumentative with other employees. We worked with this CEO and could not find any substantive changes that we thought would help. We started looking at how new employees were introduced into the firm and how they were trained and supported. We found that the nature of the business was the problem. This firm did contract accounting services and by the nature of the business new hires were out of the office and working in the client offices immediately after hiring on.Through interviews we discovered that the employees were uncomfortable and felt disconnected as they â€Å"got thrown to the wolves. †Ã‚   We work with the CEO and new support plans and work procedures were implemented. As new employees came on board, they were assigned a â€Å"buddy† who worked with them at the client location half the time. This helped the new hire get comfortable with both the client and accounting firm. The â€Å"buddy† was also responsible to â€Å"train† the new hire in the office for two weeks before the new hire went out to client locations.This was not dead time, but rather on the job training working on client work but at the accounting firm’s office. The CEO also implemented one-on-one coaching sessions with new hires that were held on a weekly basis for the first 90 days of employment. These coaching sessions were to help orient the new hire to the company culture and they were used by the CEO as a safety valve or venting session. The CEO found these coaching session invaluable in helping both of them to resolve issues before they got out of control and became commitment reducing concerns.The result of the new approach is that the CEO has not lost a new hire for nine months now. This is retention that is already longer than the past experiences. A second situation is an engineering firm with 20 employees and ten million dollars in revenues. The CEO said he was loosing his employees to competitive firms. He said he was tired of train ing new hires and then loosing them. With the permission of the CEO we interviewed several employees – both new hire and long term employees. We found some interesting environmental facts that pointed to the problem.We heard that employee expectations were not being met. The employees felt that they didn’t have adequate equipment and materials to perform their work. They also felt that there was disparity from employee to employee in the quality and capabilities of the equipment that the company made available to employees. We heard that employee assignments were constantly changing and that client demands often were accepted by management and the implications were longer work hours and lost family time. We heard much more, but this is enough of an example to show the problem.These items alone point to a poor work environment, but that was not the problem. These employees said that during the hire interview process the CEO made statements that led the new hires to beli eve they would have state of the art equipment. They said that the CEO said they had a culture of working a 40 hour work week. These employees also said that they had talked to friends who were working in other companies and that the environment was much better. The CEO said that demands from clients and fear of loosing business were driving some of his actions.He also said that poor revenues lately were impacting his ability to spend on equipment. Our CEO was also surprised to hear that his competitors were providing a better work environment. We helped this CEO implement some changes that have helped with his attrition problem. He did some work to script his interview questions and comments about the company. This helped him avoid his enthusiastic descriptions about the company that tended to overstate the real situation. We helped him put plans in place to stage the purchase of new equipment. He was able to schedule work hours in taggered sessions that allowed some sharing of the new equipment. The biggest change the CEO made was to share more information with the company employees on the business environment and to implement a more open listening style. This CEO is working hard to change these company culture issues and the results so fare is that he has not lost any employees since he started this new focus. In summary, our clients are getting our help to get their focus on working â€Å"on their business† rather than working â€Å"in their business† and when they do – they find excellent results.